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Changes: Much of ypserv was rewritten to make it faster and more robust. This release fixes a bug in ypxfr where the transfer of new maps could be incomplete. It also adds a new option to rpc.yppasswdd to register on a special port. A lot of minor bug fixes and documentation fixes were also made.
In order to aid process development and address extendibility of ionized physical vapor deposition (IPVD) technology to future integrated circuit generations, an integrated model capable of simulating phenomena across the various length scales characteristic of these systems has been developed. The model is comprised of a two-dimensional equipment simulation, which relates process variables to characteristics of material fluxes to the wafer, and a three-dimensional Monte Carlo based feature scale model. The ion-surface interaction data required to model the surface processes is generated by a molecular dynamics based simulation. The integrated model is used to study the effect of various IPVD process parameters such as wafer bias, coil power, target power, and buffer gas composition on copper film profile inside a trench. Variations in film profile across the wafer are also examined. It is found that increasing the wafer bias results in an increase in the mean ion energy and the amount of sputtering inside the feature. This results in material transfer from the bottom of the feature to the sidewalls and faceting of the upper corners of the trench. Two variables, namely the total ion to Cu flux ratio (RI/N) and the mean ion energy, are found to play a crucial role in determining the effects of coil power and target power. Increasing the coil power enhances RI/N and slightly decreases the mean ion energy. This leads to more sputtering, and therefore a thicker film on the sidewalls relative to that on the bottom. Increase in target power causes RI/N to decrease, which decreases sputtering within the feature. Film profiles generally show evidence of enhanced sputtering as buffer gas ionization threshold decreases (HeNeArXe) for the gases considered. These variations can be explained in terms of two factors: Cu flux ionization fraction, which decreases with buffer gas ionization threshold, and mean ion energy, which increases with ionization threshold.うむぅ、ある意味 state-of-the-art な論文だな。 reference も充実、Univ of Illinois の HPEM に関する 11 は必ず読んでおくこと。 これ D 論にのっけとけばいいかな。
Self-passivated copper as a gate electrode in the form of TiO/Cu/TiO/TiN/SiO2 has been obtained by annealing Cu/Ti/TiN/SiO2. The thickness of Ti in Cu/TiTiN was optimized at 150 A by forming an 80 A continuous TiO film on the outer surface of the Cu. The multilayer of SiO2/TiO/Cu/TiO/TiN/SiO2 showed stable electrical passivating properties against Cu diffusion into the top or bottom SiO2. Consequently, self-passivated copper has secured the dielectric properties of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition SiO2 and can be utilized as a gate electrode in low temperature poly-Si thin film transistor liquid crystal displays without sacrificing the low resistivity of Cu.
The filling of deep vias and trenches with metal for interconnect layers in microelectronic devices requires anisotropic deposition techniques to avoid formation of voids. Ionized metal physical vapor deposition (IMPVD) is a process which is being developed to address this need. In IMPVD, a magnetron sputter deposition source is augmented with a secondary plasma source with the goal of ionizing a large fraction of the metal atoms. Application of a bias to the substrate results in an anisotropic flux of metal ions for deposition. The ion flux also contributes to "sputter back" of metal deposits on the lip of the via which could lead to void formation. In this article, we describe and present results from a two-dimensional plasma model for IMPVD using a dc magnetron and an inductively coupled auxiliary ionization source. The scaling of copper IMPVD is discussed as a function of buffer gas pressure, sputter source, and source geometry. We show that the deposition rate of metal on the substrate will be reduced as pressure increases due to the increase in diffusive losses. We also show that the sputtering of the auxiliary coils can be a significant issue in IMPVD systems, which must be addressed in tool design.さっきのやつ の 11。